• Poppi Nastasia Yunita Dewi Poppi Nastasia Yunita Dewi Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro
  • Nurjazuli Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro
  • Budiyono Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro



Agrochemicals, Chronic kidney disease, Etiology, Exposure Pesticides


The main causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) globally are diabetes and hypertension, but the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is occurring in Central America and Indonesia. Although it is also observed in women, CKDu is concentrated in men in the agricultural sector. Hence, suspicion initially fell on exposure to pesticides, but chronic heat stress and dehydration are currently considered the main etiological factors. In response to persistent public and scientific concerns about the role of pesticides, we conducted a systematic review of epidemiological studies that examined the relationship between indicators of pesticide exposure and incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Of the 3 analytic studies we identified, 2 were positive and 1 was negative. One study conducted in the Indonesia investigated the interactions between pesticides and other related exposures in agricultural work, specifically environmental factors (humidity and temperature) that cause heat stress and dehydration. In conclusion, existing research provides significant evidence for a link between pesticides and regional CKDu epidemics and a role for nephrotoxic agrochemicals due to poor pesticide use. Future research should undertake lifetime exposure assessments to specific relevant pesticides and sufficient power to discern. interactions with other major risk factors, in particular heat stress.



United State Renal Data System. US Renal Data System 2019 Annual Data Report: Epidemiology of Kidney Disease in the United States. [Diakses 25 Maret 2021]. Available at:

Jha, V.;Garcia, G.G,;Iseki, K.; Li,Z.;Naicher,S.;Plattner, B.;Saran, R.; Wang, A.Y-M. Chronic kidney disease: Global dimension and perspectives. Lancet (2013): 382: 260-272

Peraza S, Wesseling C, Aragon A, Leiva R, Trabanino R.A.G. Decreased Kidney Function Among Agricultural Workers in El Salvador. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (2012):59: 531-540

Almaguer M, Herrera R, Orantes C.M. Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Agricultural Communities. MEDICC Rev. (2014): 16: 9-15

Hill N.R, et al. Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease- A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE. (2016): 11, e0158765

Hooi L.S, et al. A population-based study measuring the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in West Malaysia. Kidney Int. (2013): 84: 1034-1040

Indonesia Ministry of Health. Basic Health Research-Riskesda. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kemenkes RI: Jakarta. (2013).

Indonesian Renal Registry. 10th Report of Indonesian Renal Registry—2017. [Diakses 20 Maret 2021]. Available at:

Weaver, V.M, Fadrowski, J.J, Jaar, B.G. Global dimensions of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu): A modern era environmental and/or occupational nephropathy? BMC Nephrol. (2015): 16: 145.

Jayasinghe, S. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology should be renamed chronic agrochemical nephropathy. MEDICC Rev. (2014): 16: 72–74.

Valcke, M.; Levasseur, M.E.; da Silva, A.S.; Wesseling, C. Pesticide exposures and chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology: An epidemiologic review. Environmental Health. (2017): 16: 49.

Statistic Indonesia. [Diakses 15 Maret 2021]. Available at:

Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture. Statistik Prasarana dan Sarana Pertanian Tahun 2011–2015 (Agricultural Infrastructure and Facilities Statistic 2011–2015). Direktorat Jenderal Prasarana dan Sarana Pertanian Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia: Jakarta, Indonesia. (2015): 59–76.

Faqih A dan Boer R. Fenomena Perubahan Iklim di Indonesia. In Politik Pembangunan Pertanian Dalam Menghadapi Perubahan Iklim (IAARD) Press: Jakarta, Indonesia. (2013): 11–28.

Lucas R.A, Epstein Y, Kjellstrom T. Excessive occupational heat exposure: A significant ergonomic challenge and health risk for current and future workers. Extrem. Physiol Med. (2014): 3: 14.

Mc. Clean M, Laws R, Ramirez Rubio O, Brooks D. Industrial hygiene/ occupational health assessment: Evaluating potential hazards associated with chemicals and work practices at the Ingenio San Antonio (Chichigalpa, Nicaragua). Boston University School of Public Health. (2010). Available at:

Mesnage R, Arno M, Costanzo M, Malatesta M, Séralini G-E, Antoniou M.N. Transcriptome profile analysis reflects rat liver and kidney damage following chronic ultra-low dose Roundup exposure. Environ Health. (2015):14:70.

Rajapakse S, Shivanthan M.C, Selvarajah M. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health. (2016): 22: 259–264.

Groborz A, Juliszewski T. Comparison of farmers workload by manual and mechanical tasks on family farms. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. (2013): 20: 356–360.

Nerbass F.B, Pecoits-Filho R, Clark W.F, Sontrop J.M, McIntyre C.W, Moist L. Occupational heat stress and kidney health: From farms to factories. Kidney Int. Rep. (2017): 2: 998–1008.

García-Trabanino R, Jarquín E, Wesseling C, Johnson R.J, González-Quiroz M, Weiss I, Glaser J, José V.J, Stockfelt L, Roncal C, et al. Heatstress, dehydration, and kidney function in sugarcane cutters in El Salvador—A cross-shift study of workers at risk of Mesoamerican nephropathy. Environ. Res. (2015): 142: 746–755.

Brook, D. Final Scoping Study Report—Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease in Nicaragua. Boston University School of Public Health: Boston, MA: USA. (2009).

Sabolic, I. Common mechanisms in nephropathy induced by toxic metals. Nephron Physiol. (2006): 104: 107–114.

Mazoteras-Pardo V, Becerro-De-Bengoa-Vallejo R, Losa-Iglesia M.E, López D, Rodríguez-Sanz D, Casado-Hernández I, Calvo-Lobo C, Palomo-López P. QardioArm Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor Against Omron M3 Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Validation Study According to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol Revision. J. Med. Internet Res. (2019): 21: e14686.

Mazoteras-Pardo V, Becerro-De-Bengoa-Vallejo R, Losa-Iglesias M.E, López D, Calvo-Lobo C, Rodríguez-Sanz D, Eva María Martínez-Jiménez E.M, Palomo-López P. An Automated Blood Pressure Display for Self-Measurement in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (iHealth Track): Device Validation Study. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. (2020): 8: e14702.

Zimbudzi E, Lo C, Misso M.L, Ranasinha S, Kerr P.G, Teede H.J, Zoungas S. Effectiveness of self-management support interventions for people with comorbid diabetes and chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst. Rev. (2018): 7: 84.




How to Cite

Poppi Nastasia Yunita Dewi, Nurjazuli, & Budiyono. (2021). STUDI LITERATUR: PAPARAN PESTISIDA DAN KEJADIAN GANGGUAN FUNGSI GINJAL PADA PETANI. Jurnal Riset Kesehatan Poltekkes Depkes Bandung, 13(1), 29-39.